Pengesahan RKUHP oleh DPR Resahkan Kalangan Pers 

Securitynews.co.id, JAKARTA- Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) telah mengesahkan Rancangan Kitab Undang-undang Hukum Pidana (RKUHP) menjadi undang-undang dalam rapat paripurna yang berlangsung di Gedung DPR RI, Selasa (06/12/2022) lalu.
Pengesahan RKUHP itu dinilai oleh Serikat Media Siber Indonesia (SMSI) terkesan dipaksakan untuk ditetapkan. SMSI yang beranggotakan sekitar 2000 perusahaan pers siber akan menggungat pengesahan KUHP melalui Mahkamah Konstitusi (MK).
Untuk apa terburu-buru disahkan, sementara sosialiasi kepada masyarakat belum maksimal, dan banyaknya masukan dari berbagai elemen masyarakat, terutama Dewan Pers bersama konstituennya, yang belum terakomodir. “Ini terkesan dipaksakan, pengesahan RKUHP. SMSI khawatir pasal-pasal yang ada, masih banyak yang mengancam pelanggaran HAM, Kemerdekaan Pers dan Demokrasi. Beberapa pasal juga, kami nilai berpotensi mengkriminalisasi karya jurnalistik dan melanggar kebebasan pers,” ujar Ketua Umum SMSI Firdaus didampingi Ketua Bidang Hukum, Arbitrase, dan Legislasi Makali Kumar SH dalam keterangan persnya, Kamis, 8 Desember 2022.

Meski tidak secara detil menyebut pasal per pasal, SMSI merasa khawatir dengan masih banyaknya pasal-pasal dalam KUHP yang baru direvisi, bertentangan dengan prinsip dasar hak asasi manusia, kemerdekaan pers dan demokrasi. Di antaranya hak atas kesetaraan di hadapan hukum dan perlindungan hukum yang sama tanpa diskriminasi, hak atas privasi dan hak atas kebebasan beragama atau berkeyakinan, serta kebebasan berpendapat dan berekspresi. “Pada prinsipnya, SMSI mendukung pembaruan hukum pidana. Namun semangat kodifikasi dan dekolonialisasi dalam UU KUHP ini, jangan sampai mengandung kriminalisasi dan mereduksi hak-hak masyarakat, termasuk kebebasan pers,” jelas Firdaus.

SMSI menyayangkan keputusan DPR bersama pemerintah, yang terkesan memaksakan untuk segera ditetapkan. Para wakil rakyat dinilai mengabaikan partisipasi dan masukan masyarakat, terutama komunitas pers. UU KUHP yang baru saja disahkan, dianggap tidak melalui pembahasan secara transparan, teliti, dan partisipatif. Pemerintah dan DPR kurang mengakomodasi berbagai masukan dan gagasan dari publik. Termasuk dari komunitas Pers. “Banyak pasal-pasal krusial yang menjadi ancaman bagi pers dan wartawan. SMSI melalui bidang hukum, sejak awal mengkritisi RUU KUHP tersebut. Bahkan kami aktif bersama konstituen lain di Dewan Pers, untuk melakukan berbagai upaya dalam menyikapi RUU KUHP. Supaya, pasal-pasal yang krusial itu, direvisi, supaya tidak bertentangan dengan HAM maupun UU Nomor 40 tahun 1999 tentang pers,” tambahnya.

SMSI sepakat untuk terus berjuang bersama-sama dengan Dewan Pers dan konstituen lainnya, termasuk elemen masyarakat diluar komunitas pers, dalam menyikapi pengesahan UU KUHP tersebut, ke depannya. Termasuk mengajukan gugatan ke Mahkamah Konstitusi (MK).

Banyak pasal dalam UU KUHP tersebut sungguh mengancam HAM dan kehidupan berdemokrasi di Indonesia. Kemerdekaan pers dan kebebasan berekspresi kini menghadapi upaya pembungkaman. Pers sebagai pilar demokrasi yang bekerja untuk memenuhi hak masyarakat atas informasi yang bermakna akan lumpuh karena berhadapan dengan ancaman kriminalisasi oleh pasal-pasal UU KUHP.
Dalam demokrasi, kemerdekaan pers harus dijaga, salah satunya dengan memastikan tidak adanya kriminalisasi terhadap wartawan. Perlindungan itu dibutuhkan agar wartawan dapat bebas menjalankan tugasnya dalam mengawasi (social control), melakukan kritik, koreksi, dan memberikan saran-saran terhadap hal- hal yang berkaitan dengan kepentingan umum untuk mencegah terjadinya penyalahgunaan kekuasaan.
Kemerdekaan pers terbelenggu karena UU KUHP itu dapat menjerat wartawan dan perusahaan pers sebagai pelaku tindak pidana ketika menjalankan tugas jurnalistik.
Dewan Pers sendiri, sebagai lembaga independen sebelumnya telah menyusun Daftar Inventaris Masalah (DIM) RKUHP terhadap pasal-pasal krusial yang menjadi ancaman terhadap pers dan wartawan.
Dewan Pers juga menyarankan reformulasi 11 cluster dan 17 pasal dalam RKUHP yang berpotensi mengancam kemerdekaan pers, sebagai upaya mencegah kriminalisasi. Namun masukan yang telah diserahkan ke pemerintah dan DPR tidak memperoleh feedback. Padahal, Dewan Pers juga menyampaikan saran agar dilakukan simulasi kasus atas norma yang akan dirumuskan.
Ketentuan-ketentuan pidana pers dalam KUHP, mencederai regulasi yang sudah diatur dalam UU No 40 Tahun 1999 tentang Pers. Padahal unsur penting berdemokrasi adalah dengan adanya kemerdekaan berekspresi, kemerdekaan berpendapat, serta kemerdekaan pers.
Dalam kehidupan yang demokratis, kemerdekaan menyampaikan pikiran dan pendapat sesuai dengan hati nurani dan hak memperoleh informasi, merupakan hak asasi manusia hakiki. “Seperti pasal 263 dan 264 RKUHP yang sudah disahkan. Didalamnya ada kata penyiaran dan berita. Frasa ini akan berpotensi menghambat kemerdekaan pers. SMSI dari awal, minta untuk dihapus atau dihilangkan dalam RKUHP, karena hal itu sudah diatur dalam UU no 40 tahun tentang pers,” tegas Firdaus.

SMSI mencatat pasal-pasal UU KUHP yang berpotensi mengkriminalisasi wartawan dan mengancam kemerdekaan pers, kemerdekaan berpendapat, dan berekspresi, sebagai berikut:
1. Pengembangan ajaran Komunisme/Marxisme-Leninisme
Pasal 188 yang mengatur tentang tindak pidana penyebaran atau pengembangan ajaran Komunisme/Marxisme-Leninisme.
2. Penyerangan kehormatan atau harkat dan martabat Presiden dan Wakil Presiden
Pasal 218, Pasal 219, dan Pasal 220 yang mengatur tindak pidana penyerangan kehormatan atau harkat dan martabat Presiden dan Wakil Presiden.
3. Penghinaan terhadap Pemerintah dan Lembaga Negara
Pasal 240 dan Pasal 241 yang mengatur tindak pidana penghinaan terhadap pemerintah dan lembaga negara dihukum tiga tahun.
4. Penyiaran atau penyebarluasan berita atau pemberitahuan bohong
Pasal 263 yang mengatur tindak pidana penyiaran atau penyebarluasan berita atau pemberitahuan bohong.
Pasal 264 yang mengatur tindak pidana kepada setiap orang yang menyiarkan berita yang tidak pasti, berlebih-lebihan, atau yang tidak lengkap.
5. Gangguan dan penyesatan proses peradilan
Pasal 280 yang mengatur tentang Gangguan dan penyesatan proses peradilan.
6. Tindak pidana terhadap agama dan kepercayaan
Pasal 300, Pasal 301, dan Pasal 302 yang memuat tentang tindak pidana terhadap agama dan kepercayaan.
7. Penghinaan dan Pencemaran Nama Baik
Pasal 436 yang mengatur tindak pidana penghinaan ringan.
Pasal 433 mengatur tindak pidana pencemaran.
Pasal 439 mengatur tindak pidana pencemaran orang mati.
8. Penerbitan dan pencetakan
Pasal 594 dan Pasal 595 mengatur tindak pidana penerbitan dan pencetakan.

Sumber : Rilis SMSI
Posting : Imam Gazali

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